In the spring of 2018, the Charity & Security Network learned of several lawsuits filed in U.S. courts against nonprofit organizations that receive USAID funding. Using a law meant to combat fraud against the federal government by providing incentives for private citizens to act as whistleblowers (the False Claims Act), the Zionist Advocacy Center (TZAC) has alleged that three groups violated the anti-terrorist certification in their grant agreements with USAID by providing “material support” to groups on the terrorist lists. In two of these cases, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) joined the lawsuits, which were settled without trial. The third, against the Carter Center, was dismissed at the request of DOJ. TZAC says it has filed two additional cases against international NGOs. They are currently under seal.