Track II Diplomacy is a form of peacebuilding that uses unofficial actors to convene and engage in dialogue to resolve conflict, explore deep conflict dynamics and set the stage for a more peaceful future.  Often conducted by NGOs like the Carter Center, Track II efforts focus on dialogue with influential private citizens, former officials or officials acting “off the record” within a conflict area.
But these efforts are hamepred by the “material support” prohibition which erodes the ability of NGOs to engage with listed terrorist groups without fear of criminal prosecution and economic sanctions. Peacebuilding organizations and citizens who practice Track II risk running afoul of the law for engaging with terrorist groups, even when it is solely for the purpose of negotiating peace and ending conflict.